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Marxism, 列宁, Lenin: 五一节! (2)

 

五一节! 1904 P2: (作品辑录)

劳动反对资本的
伟大斗争使各国工人付出了巨大的牺牲!

他们为了捍卫自己过美好生活和享有真正自由的权利;
已经流了许多血…

无数为工人事业而奋斗的战士遭到政府的迫害;

但是不管怎样迫害,
全世界工人的联合还是在不断发展和加强!

工人们日益紧密地团结起来;
结成社会主义的政党,

社会主义政党的拥护者已经数以百万计;
他们正一步一步、

勇往直前地向着完全战胜资本家剥削者阶级的目标前进!

俄国无产阶级也已经觉醒过来;
要走向新的生活…

它也参加到这个伟大的斗争中来了!

过去, 我国工人看不到摆脱奴隶生活的出路;
在自己苦役般的生活中看不到一线光明;

只能俯首帖耳地当牛做马;
如今, 这种时代已经过去了…

社会主义已经指出了这种出路,
成千上万的战士涌聚在红旗下面;

把它作为指路的明灯!

罢工向工人表明了联合的力量;
教导了工人怎样去进行反抗,

表明了组织起来的工人对资本是一个多么大的威胁!

工人们亲眼看到,
资本家和政府是靠他们的劳动来生活和发财的;

工人们渴望进行共同的斗争;
渴望自由和社会主义!

工人们已经懂得沙皇专制制度
是一种多么凶恶和黑暗的力量!

工人们需要斗争的自由,
但是沙皇政府束缚了他们的手脚;

工人们需要自由集会、自由结社和自由出版书报;
但是沙皇政府以监狱、

皮鞭和刺刀来压制一切争取自由的愿望!

“打倒专制制度"的口号已响彻全俄国;

在街头, 在成千上万人参加的工人大会上;
愈来愈多地听到这个口号!

去年夏天, 俄国整个南部的数以万计的工人
奋起为改善生活、为摆脱警察的压迫而斗争!

资产阶级和政府
看见威严的工人大军胆战心惊;

因为这支大军一下子就使大城市的全部工业陷于停顿!

一批批为工人事业而奋斗的战士;
在被派来对付内部敌人的沙皇军队的枪弹下倒下去了!

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Engels: The Principles of Communism! (4)

 

Principles Of Communism! P4: (網友提供; 如有錯誤, 請原諒!)

5) Under what conditions does this sale of the
labor of the proletarians
to the bourgeoisie take place?

Labor is a commodity, like any other,

and its price is therefore determined
by exactly the same laws that apply
to other commodities.

In a regime of big industry or of free competition

as we shall see,
the two come to the same thing:

the price of a commodity is, on the average,
always equal to its cost of production.

Hence, the price of labor is also equal
to the cost of production of labor.

But, the costs of production
of labor consist of precisely the quantity
of means of subsistence necessary

to enable the worker to continue working,
and to prevent the working class from dying out.

The worker will therefore get
no more for his labor than is necessary
for this purpose;

the price of labor, or the wage,
will, in other words, be the lowest,

the minimum, required for the maintenance of life.

However, since business is sometimes better
and sometimes worse,

it follows that the worker sometimes gets more
and sometimes gets less for his commodities.

But, again, just as the industrialist,
on the average of good times and bad,

gets no more and no less for his commodities
than what they cost,

similarly on the average the worker
gets no more and no less than his minimum.

This economic law of wages operates
the more strictly the greater the degree

to which big industry has taken possession
of all branches of production.

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Engels: The Principles of Communism! (3)

 

Principles Of Communism! P3: (網友提供; 如有錯誤, 請原諒!)

4) How did the proletariat originate?

But at the same time,
they also fell into the hands of big capitalists,

and their workers were deprived
of whatever independence remained to them.

Gradually, not only genuine manufacture
but also handicrafts came within the province

of the factory system as big capitalists
increasingly displaced the small master craftsmen
by setting up huge workshops,

which saved many expenses
and permitted an elaborate division of labor.

This is how it has come about that
in civilized countries at the present time nearly

all kinds of labor are performed in factories

and, in nearly all branches of work,
handicrafts and manufacture have been superseded.

This process has, to an ever greater degree,
ruined the old middle class,

especially the small handicraftsmen;
it has entirely transformed the condition of the workers;

and two new classes have been created
which are gradually swallowing up all the others.

These are:

(i) The class of big capitalists,
who, in all civilized countries,

are already in almost exclusive possession
of all the means of subsistance

and of the instruments (machines, factories)
and materials necessary for the production
of the means of subsistence.

This is the bourgeois class, or the bourgeoisie.

(ii) The class of the wholly propertyless,
who are obliged to sell their labor

to the bourgeoisie in order to get,

in exchange, the means of subsistence
for their support.

This is called the class of proletarians,
or the proletariat.

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列寧, Lenin: 卡爾. 馬克思(節選)! (4)

 

卡爾. 馬克思(節選)! P4: (作品輯錄)

唯物主義歷史觀

馬克思認識到舊唯物主義的不徹底性、
不完備性和片面性!

確信必須"使關於社會的科學同唯物主義的基礎協調起來,
並在這個基礎上加以改造"!

既然唯物主義總是用存在解釋意識而不是相反,
那麼應用於人類社會生活時,

唯物主義就要求用社會解釋社會意識!

馬克思在《政治經濟學批判》序言中,
對推廣運用於人類社會及其歷史的唯物主義的基本原理,

作了如下的完整的表述:

“人們在自己生活的社會生產中發生的同他們的
物質生產力的一定發展階段相適應的生產關係是一定的、

必然的、不以他們的意志為轉移的!

這些生產關係的總和構成社會的經濟結構,

即有法律的和政治的上層建築豎立其上
並有一定的社會意識形式與之相適應的現實基礎!

物質生活的生產方式制約著整個社會生活、
政治生活和精神生活的過程!

不是人們的意識決定人們的存在,
相反, 是人們的社會存在決定人們的意識!

社會的物質生產力發展到一定階段,
便同它們 一直在其中運動的現存生產關係或財產關係
(這只是生產關係的法律用語)發生矛盾!

這些關係便由生產力的發展形式變成生產力的桎梏!

那時社會革命的時代就到來了!

隨著經濟基礎的變更,
全部龐大的上層建築也或慢或快地發生變革!

在考察這樣的變革時,
必須時刻把下面兩者區別開來:

一種是生產的經濟條件方面所發生的物質的、
可以像自然科學那樣精確地確定的變革,

一種是人們藉以意識到
這個衝突並力求把它解決的那些法律的、

政治的、宗教的、藝術的或哲學的,
簡言之, 意識形態的形式!

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列寧, Lenin: 卡爾. 馬克思(節選)! (3)

 

卡爾. 馬克思(節選)! P3: (作品輯錄)

辯證法

恩格斯寫道: 一個偉大的基本思想,
即認為世界不是既成事物的集合體,

而是過程的集合體!

其中各個似乎穩定的事物
同它們在我們頭腦中的思想映象

即概念一樣都處在生成和滅亡的不斷變化中,

這個偉大的基本思想,
特別是從黑格爾以來, 已經成了一般人的意識!

但是, 口頭上承認這個思想是一回事,

實際上把這個思想分別運用於每一個研究領域,
又是一回事…

在辯證哲學面前, 不存在任何最終的東西、
絕對的東西、神聖的東西;

它指出所有一切事物的暫時性;

在它面前, 除了生成和滅亡的不斷過程、
無止境地由低級上升到高級的不斷過程, 什麼都不存在!

它本身就是這個過程在思維著的頭腦中的反映!

因此, 在馬克思看來, 辯證法就是;
關於外部世界和人類思維的運動的一般規律的科學!

辯證唯物主義
不再需要任何淩駕於其他科學之上的哲學!

以往的哲學只留下了,
關於思維及其規律的學說 — 形式邏輯和辯證法!

辯證法本身包括認識論的內容,
這種認識論應當歷史地觀察自己的物件,

研究並概括認識的起源和發展, 從不知到知的轉化!

發展似乎是在重複以往的階段,
但它是以另一種方式重複,

是在更高的基礎上重複(“否定的否定"),
發展是按所謂螺旋式, 而不是直線式進行的;

發展是飛躍式的、劇變式的、革命的;
漸進過程的中斷, 量轉化為質;

發展的內因來自對某一物體、
或在某一現象範圍內或某一社會內發生作用的各種力量
和趨勢的矛盾或衝突;

每種現象的一切方面(而且歷史在不斷地揭示出新的方面)
相互依存, 極其密切而不可分割地聯繫在一起;

這種聯繫形成統一的、
有規律的世界運動過程,

這就是辯證法這一內容更豐富的發展學說的若干特徵!

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Marx, Engels: The Communist Manifesto! (4)

 

Manifesto of the Communist Party 1848! P4:
(網友提供; 如有錯誤, 請原諒!)

We see, therefore,

how the modern bourgeoisie is itself
the product of a long course of development,

of a series of revolutions in the modes
of production and of exchange.

Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie
was accompanied by a corresponding political advance
of that class.

An oppressed class under the sway
of the feudal nobility,

an armed and self-governing association
in the medieval commune:

here independent urban republic
(as in Italy and Germany);

there taxable third estate
of the monarchy (as in France);

afterwards, in the period of manufacturing proper,
serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy

as a counterpoise against the nobility,
and, in fact, cornerstone
of the great monarchies in general,

the bourgeoisie has at last,
since the establishment of Modern Industry
and of the world market,

conquered for itself,
in the modern representative State,

exclusive political sway.

The executive of the modern state is but
a committee for managing the common affairs
of the whole bourgeoisie.

The bourgeoisie, historically,
has played a most revolutionary part.

The bourgeoisie,
wherever it has got the upper hand,

has put an end to all feudal,
patriarchal, idyllic relations.

It has pitilessly torn asunder
the motley feudal ties that bound man
to his “natural superiors",

and has left remaining no other nexus between man
and man than naked self-interest,

than callous “cash payment".

It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies
of religious fervour,

of chivalrous enthusiasm,
of philistine sentimentalism,

in the icy water of egotistical calculation.

It has resolved personal worth
into exchange value,

and in place of the numberless indefeasible
chartered freedoms,

has set up that single,
unconscionable freedom — Free Trade.

In one word, for exploitation,
veiled by religious and political illusions,

it has substituted naked, shameless,
direct, brutal exploitation.

The bourgeoisie has stripped
of its halo every occupation hitherto honoured
and looked up to with reverent awe.

It has converted the physician, the lawyer,
the priest, the poet, the man of science,
into its paid wage labourers.

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Marx, Engels: The Communist Manifesto! (3)

 

Manifesto of the Communist Party 1848! P3:
(網友提供; 如有錯誤, 請原諒!)

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang
the chartered burghers of the earliest towns.

From these burgesses the first elements
of the bourgeoisie were developed.

The discovery of America,
the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground
for the rising bourgeoisie.

The East-Indian and Chinese markets,
the colonisation of America,

trade with the colonies,
the increase in the means of exchange
and in commodities generally,

gave to commerce, to navigation,
to industry, an impulse never before known,
and thereby,

to the revolutionary element
in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry,
in which industrial production was monopolised
by closed guilds,

now no longer sufficed for the growing wants
of the new markets.

The manufacturing system took its place.

The guild-masters were pushed on one side
by the manufacturing middle class;

division of labour between
the different corporate guilds vanished
in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing,
the demand ever rising.

Even manufacturer no longer sufficed.

Thereupon, steam and machinery
revolutionised industrial production.

The place of manufacture was taken by the giant,
Modern Industry;

the place of the industrial middle class
by industrial millionaires,

the leaders of the whole industrial armies,
the modern bourgeois.

Modern industry has established the world market,
for which the discovery of America paved the way.

This market has given
an immense development to commerce,

to navigation, to communication by land.

This development has, in its turn,
reacted on the extension of industry;

and in proportion as industry, commerce,
navigation, railways extended,

in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed,
increased its capital,

and pushed into the background every
class handed down from the Middle Ages.

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